Aiym Zeinullina1, Aiman Rysbekova1, Elmira Dyussibayeva1, Irina Zhirnova1, Nursaule Zhanbyrshina1, Zhazira Zhunusbayeva2 and SvetlaYancheva3
1 S.Seifullin Kazakh AgroTechnical Research University, Agronomic faculty, Astana, 010011, Republic of Kazakhstan
2 Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, 050040, Almaty, Kazakhstan
3 Agricultural University Plovdiv, 12 Mendeleev Blv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Zeinullina, A., Rysbekova, A., Dyussibayeva, E., Zhirnova, I., Zhanbyrshina, N., Zhunusbayeva, Z. & Yancheva, S. (2023). Application of sodium azide for chemical induced mutagenesis of proso millet culture (Panicum miliaceum L.). Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 29(4), 623–631
Present study aimed to identify the effect of different concentrations of sodium azide (NaN3), depending on seed exposure time on various economically valuable traits of millet plants in M1 generation and establish the effectiveness of inducing beneficial mutations. From the experiments, it is concluded that the optimal concentration of sodium azide for millet mutagenesis in laboratory conditions is 1% at 4 hours of exposure, while the germination of seeds and the length of seedlings remain at the level of control. In the field in the nursery of the first generation (M1) mutants, sodium azide reduced the germination of seeds and plants survival, whereas an increase in the mutagen concentration increased the inhibitory effect on seeds and the development of plants. It was noted that the concentration of the mutagen does not significantly affect the period of vegetation, which in all variants was at the control level. Least conservancy of the indicator was observed, when treated with 0.5% concentration of the mutagen. A decrease in vegetation period by 3-6 days was recorded as the time of treatment with a mutagen increased with an exposure of 8 and 12 hours, compared to an exposure of 4 hours, the longer the time the seeds were exposed to the mutagen, the lower the indicator of the vegetation durability. A higher frequency and a wide range of changed forms were registered at 0.1% concentration of mutagen at 12 hours of exposure and varied from 3.2% to 6.3%. The identified promising mutant forms of millet with a complex of economically useful traits are of practical value and can be used in further breeding process of this crop.