Penka Filyova, Vinelina Yankova and Velichka Todorova
Agricultural Academy, Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Filyova, P., Yankova, V. & Todorova, V. (2023). Influence of economically important diseases and pests on the yield of pepper varieties and breeding lines (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in organic conditions. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 29 (2), 296–303
The pepper crop is attacked by a number of diseases and pests during the growing season which decrease the quality of production and cause significant yield losses, depending on the degree of attack.
The aim of the study was to determine the impact of economically important diseases and pests on the yield of pepper varieties and breeding lines grown in conditions of organic production. Five genotypes have been studied in four organic production systems compared to conventional one. The following traits were reported: damaged fruits (%) by cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubn.) and damaged plants (%) by Alternaria spp., Phytoplasma solani and viruses. The traits – total yield (kg da-1)*, yield of healthy fruits (kg da-1) and yield of damaged (infested) fruits (kg da-1) had been also studied.
The lowest infestation by Helicoverpa armigera Hubn. in organic production systems was established in the genotypes for grinding – from 2.86% to 4.08% for variety IZK Kalin and from 3.43% to 3.47% for line P1059/10. Higher susceptibility to infestation by cotton bollworm was found in the cultivar Sofiyska kapia (10.84%). Of the studied pepper varieties and breeding lines, with the lowest sensitivity to Alternaria spp., Phytoplasma solani and viruses showed the genotypes for grinding (variety IZK Kalin and line P1059/10), which makes them suitable for inclusion in organic production systems due to their general expressed tolerance to the tested pathogens.
In all studied genotypes in the systems of organic production lower yields were found compared to the conventional method of cultivation, as the yield of healthy fruits took a larger part of the total yield.