The relationship between the content of heavy metals Cd and Cu in some components of the environment, fish as food and human health

Elica Valkova1, Vasil Atanasov1, Tatyana Vlaykova2, Tanya Tacheva2, Yanitsa Zhelyazkova2, Dimo Dimov2 and Kristian Yakimov3
1 Trakia University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physics, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2 Trakia University, Medical Faculty, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
3 Trakia University, Agriculture Faculty Faculty, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria        


Valkova, E., Atanasov, V., Vlaykova, T., Tacheva, T., Zhelyazkova, Y., Dimov, D. & Yakimov, K. (2021). The relationship between the content of heavy metals Cd and Cu in some components of the environment, fish as food and human health. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 27 (5), 963–971

The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between the content of Cd and Cu in the air, drinking water, musculature of fish (Cyprinus carpio L.) and the blood serum of patients with and without COPD. The amount of PM10 has highest values in 2017 (average annual value 25.2 µg/m3).
The results regarding the amounts of cadmium in the air of the Stara Zagora region clearly show the absence of pollution. Determination of the amounts of the studied heavy metals in drinking water and the blood serum of the patients was carried out by the method of atomic absorption. The values of Cu, registered during the year-long study into the water of Stara Zagora and Radnevo are much lower than those adopted in Bulgarian legislation norms of 2 mg/l. The highest value of Cd is characterized by the drinking water in Stara Zagora Town from January 2020 (0.0047 mg/l), the value of which almost reaches the norm of 0.005 mg/l, defined in the normative documents. The cadmium concentrations measured during the same period in the drinking water of the Radnevo City are significantly below the accepted norms.
Concentrations of copper in musculature of common carp of from our study from 2015 were significantly lower than the norms in force at that time (Regulation №31 of 2004, laying down maximum levels for certain contaminants in foods). Ovcharitsa Dam (0.60 mg/kg) is characterized by the highest values, far below the norms regulated in the then current Regulation 31 (10 mg/kg). Minimum concentration was measured in the muscles of carp inhabiting the Pastren Dam (0.27 mg/kg). Against the background of extremely low values of the element cadmium in the muscles of the studied specimens of the species Cyprinus carpio L. the highest is the concentration measured in the samples from Opan Dam (0.0110 mg/kg), and the lowest in the samples from Pastren Dam (0.006 mg/kg). These concentrations are much lower than the MAC specified in the then active Regulation 31, as well as in the current Regulation №5 and Regulation 1881 (EU).

Keywords: cadmium; copper; blood serum; COPD; musculature; carp; environment
Abbreviations: AAV – Annual average values; COPD – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid; DOAS system – differential optical absorption spectroscopy – automatic sampling and analysis, averaged every hour; EEA – Executive Environment Agency; MAC – Maximum allowable concentration; PM10 – Particulate matter 10; RHI – Regional Health Inspectorate

See the article as a PDF.