Leaching of chemical elements under some anthropogenic impacts on Fluvisols

Tsetska Simeonova, Maya Benkova, Lyuba Nenova and Irena Atanassova
Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection “N. Pouskarov”, 1331 Sofia, Bulgaria

Abstract

Simeonova, Ts., Benkova, M., Nenova, L. & Atanassova, I. (2021). Leaching of chemical elements under some anthropogenic impacts on Fluvisols. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 27 (4), 758–763

The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of long-term fertilizer application on the content and leaching of chemical elements with lysimetric water after maize grown as monoculture.
The pilot site is Tsalapitsa village (near town of Plovdiv) in Southern Bulgaria. The experimental design included one control variant and two variants with fertilizer – (N100Р75; N200Р150 kg.ha-1) on Fluvisols. The investigation has been carried out in 2019 year. The field plots were equipped with Ebermeir lysimeters at 50 and 100 cm depth from the surface of the soil. Lysimetric water samples are taken several times a year depending on the amount of infiltrate.
Experimental data shows that the lysimetric water after maize growth could be defined as calcium-hydrocarbonate composition. The reaction of the lysimetric water is neutral and tendency of decreasing of pH values was observed as a result of the long-term use of fertilizers. The ions of calcium, nitrates, sulphates and bicarbonates are prevalent and the content of magnesium, potassium, sodium and chloride are low. The research shows that the highest content and leaching of nitrate nitrogen with lysimetric water (18.8 kg.ha-1) were obtained under variant (N200P150). The highest calcium losses (42.0 kg.ha-1) are observed under the same treatment from 0-100 cm soil layer.
The different fertilized rates and type of land use are among the factors that influenced elements leaching and losses.
The obtained results show that the relative order of migration of the elements has the following form: Ca >S > N >Mg >Cl> Na> K.

Keywords:  chemical elements; fertilizer rates; leaching; order of migration

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