Monitoring of economically important wheat viruses under weather conditions change in Ukraine and investigation of seed transmission of Wheat streak mosaic virus

Lidiya T. Mishchenko1, Alina A. Dunich1, Ivan А. Mishchenko2, Vira P. Petrenkova3, and Tetyana І. Mukha4
1 ESC Institute of Biology and Medicine, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Volodymyrska str., 64/13, Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine
2 National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony str., 15, Kyiv, 03041, Ukraine
3 The Рlant Production Institute ‘V. Y. Yuryev’ of NAASU, Moskovsky ave., 142, Kharkiv, 61060, Ukraine
4 The V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAASU, Centralna str., 68, Centralne, Kyiv region, 08853, Ukraine


Mishchenko, L. T., Dunich, A. A., Mishchenko, І. А., Petrenkova, V. P., & Mukha, Т. І. (2018). Monitoring of economically important wheat viruses under weather conditions change in Ukraine and investigation of seed transmission of Wheat streak mosaic virus. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 24(4), 660–669

WSMV and BYDV are the most harmful and widespread viruses of cereals in all wheat growing areas in the world. Many foreign scientific reports are devoted to the study of the climate change impact on plants, pathogens and their vectors. But only few of them are about cereal viruses. Recently, data about seed transmission of WSMV is appeared. The aim of the study was to research the variability of economically important wheat viruses (WSMV and BYDV) in several regions of Ukraine under change of weather conditions; and to investigate the ability of Ukrainian WSMV isolates to seed transmission. Long-term monitoring of wheat fields has shown that the most widespread and economically important in the Poltava, Kharkiv and Kyiv regions are WSMV and BYDV-PAV. In 2011-2017 it was revealed that BYDV and WSMV are replacing each other from year to year, and cases of co-infection of these viruses are not recorded. In 2011, 2013 and 2015 WSMV incidence was 42.4%, 35%, 7%. In contrast, BYDV was detected in 1.2%, 1.5% and 0.9 %, respectively. In 2012 and 2014 the frequency of BYDV detection was higher than WSMV (40-41% and 1-13.6%, respectively). An analysis of dependence of viruses’ circulation in the agrocenoses on weather conditions change is carried out. It has been established that the periodic variability of viruses (WSMV or BYDV) is closely related to agroclimatic changes (air temperature, rainfall, temperature at soil surface, soil temperature on tillering node depth of winter crops and perennial grasses, and soil freezing depth in winter) that affect their host plants, vectors throughout the year and plants reservoirs in the winter, and also cause symptoms similar to viral infection. Decrease of viral infection of wheat and obtaining more stable gross harvest of grain and yield in recent years is substantiated. This is due to the creation of new wheat cultivars, adapted to negative biotic/abiotic factors and modifying the sowing dates to later ones. It has been experimentally proved that the Poltava isolate of WSMV is not seed-transmitted. Even if contamination of seeds with WSMV is possible, the frequency of such cases is insignificant and, as we think, does not play an important role in the epidemiology of this wheat virus in Ukraine.

Keywords: WSMV; BYDV; economic losses; weather conditions; gross crop; seed transmission of viruses
Abbreviations: WSMV – Wheat streak mosaic virus, BYDV – Barley yellow dwarf virus, ELISA – enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RT-PCR – reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction

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