Orange Peel Fixed Oil (Citrus sinensis “Valencia”), Physiochemical Properties, Fatty Acids Profile, Potential Uses and the Effect of Environmental Factors on It

1 Damascus University, Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Syria
2 Damascus University, Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Syria
3 Damascus University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Syria


Ramadan, K., S. Nader and A. Ibrahim, 2018. Orange peel fi xed oil (Citrus sinensis “Valencia”), physiochemical properties, fatty acids profi le, potential uses and the effect of environmental factors on it. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 24 (1): 91–98

Studying chemical and physical properties of oils plays a role in determining its importance and the fi elds that can be used in, orange fruits contain oils and many valuable materials due to that, physical and chemical properties of orange peel fi xed oil (OPFO) have been determined, which extracted from two samples collected from two areas which are different in environmental factors. Several devices and methods used to calculate Density which was 0.95 g/ml, Kinematic Viscosity nearly 100 cSt, Refractive Index 1.499 nD, Surface Tension was lower than many vegetable oils, Pour Point 31.7-32.35°C, Acid Value nearly 24 mg KOH/g, Saponifi cation Value 141-134 mg KOH/g, Ester Value 110 mg KOH/g, Glycerol Content 5%, Iodine Value about 75.68-77.85 I2g/100g and Saponifi cation Equivalent nearly 400 g oil/mol KOH. The fatty acids content was determined by GC-MS, where Palmitic, Oleic, Linoleic and Stearic acids were the most compounds are present in OPFO. The result shows the effect of environmental factors (climate and soil composition) on oil properties. Some of fi xed oil properties were similar to some vegetable oils properties and differ to others. This oil was semi-solid at room temperature. Orange peel is a potential source of valuable oil and suitable for numerous industrial applications such as cosmetic, soap and candles industries.

Key words: orange peel; fi xed oil; physical and chemical properties; fatty acids; environmental factors

See the article as a PDF.