Effect of the Environments on the Productivity-Related Characters in Common Winter Wheat

1 Agronomi Holding, BG-9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria
2 Agricultural University, BG-4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria


GUBATOV, T., I. YANCHEV and N. TSENOV, 2016. Effect of the environments on the productivity-related characters in common winter wheat. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 22: 927–935

Aims: In order to determine the effect of the characters, which are in high correlation with grain yield under contrasting conditions of growing, the nature of the interaction of the cultivar with the growing conditions was analyzed. Methods: Bulgarian wheat cultivars were investigated during four successive years at fi ve locations within the country. The locations were chosen to cover the variety of soils and climate in all grain-production regions of Bulgaria. The complex interaction of the genotype with the environment was analyzed in relation to three characters – grain yield, and two characters (date to heading and number of grains per spike) with determining effect on it. Different statistical approaches were used to analyze the interaction of these characters with the environment and their effect on grain yield.
Key results: The genotype x environment interaction was signifi cantly high according to the factor year, as well as to the factor location of testing. The interaction year x location was low and insignifi cant. The variation determined in this experiment through principal component analysis reached third level, which complicated the assessment of the individual cultivars by two of the three investigated characters. Only with date to heading predominant linear interaction of the genotype with the environment was observed, which allowed determining of the cultivars’ stability by this character.
Conclusions: Grain yield can be correctly evaluated against the background of contrasting environmental conditions, through characters in positive correlation with it. In our case, these were the date to heading and the number of grains per spike. Each of the investigated characters revealed different nature and direction of the genotype’s interaction with the environment. It is possible, through the established regularities, to objectively evaluate the cultivars which differ from the group mean. It is demonstrated how the stability of the grain yield is related to the stability of another two characters in the same cultivars.

Key words: wheat, grain yield, date to heading, genotype х environment, stability

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