EU Regulated Marine Biotoxins in Sea Food: Origin, Classification, Chemical Structure and Intoxication Effects

Medical University Prof. Dr. P. Stoyanov, Varna, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Chemistry, BG-9000 Varna, Bulgaria


PETEVA, Zl., M. STANCHEVA and St. GEORGIEVA, 2016. EU regulated marine biotoxins in sea food: origin, classification, chemical structure and intoxication effects. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 22: 188–196

Sea food, especially marine shells (mussles, rapana, scallops) are considered as healthy food due to their high value of unsaturated fatty acids and high protein intake. Global production of mussels has serious economic impact. In last years 25% was from European aquaculture. Despite the high nutritional value of  shells, they have bad reputation due to the possible toxins which could be present in their meat. Marine biotoxins can be found in all trophic levels of marine food web but are produced by certain phytoplankton species. Classification of current EU regulated marine biotoxins includes two main groups – hydrophilic (PSP and ASP) and lipophilic toxins (DSP and AZP). This review presents their structure, classification and symptoms of intoxication. In addition, EU regulatory limits for marine toxins are discussed.

Key words: marine biotoxins, sea food, harmful marine microalgae, symptoms of intoxication
Abbreviations: HABs – harmful algal blooms; EU – European Union; PSP – paralytic shellfish poisoning; ASP – amnesic shellfish poisoning; DSP – diarrheic shellfish poisoning; AZP – azaspiracid shellfish poisoning; CFP – ciguatera fish poisoning; NSP – neurologic shellfish poisoning; SSP – spiroimine shellfish poisoning; STXs – saxitoxins; DA – domoic acid; OA – okadaic acid; DTXs – dinophysistoxins; YTXs – yessotoxins; PTXs – pectenotoxins; AZAs – azaspiracid group toxin; SM- shellfish meat; neoSTX ( NEO) – Neosaxitoxins; GNTX (GTX) – Gonyautoxin; dc – decarbamoyl; do – deoxydecarbamoyl; FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; IOC – International Olympic Committee; WHO – World Health Organization; EFSA – European Food Safety Authority; i.p. – Intraperitoneal; LD – lethal dose; LTs – lipophilic toxins; KT3 – Killary Toxin-3

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