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Guide for Authors


  1. Length of the paper is not a criterion for accepting, but it should not exceeds the minimum length required for precision in describing the experiments and clarity in interpreting them.
  2. Manuscripts should be written in English or in Bulgarian.
  3. Submit the original and at least two copies of your manuscript. Enclose the original illustrations and three sets of photocopies (three prints of each photograph).
  4. Instructions to the copy editor should be made on a separate sheet, not in the margins.
  5. Paginate the entire manuscript in the top right-hand comer of the pages.
  6. Underline words that should be in italics (if your computer has not italics) and do not underline any other words, including headings and keywords.
  7. SI units should be used. Decimal fractions or g/kg should be preferred instead of percentage.
  8. Manuscripts should be organized in the following order:
    a. Title (please try to avoid long titles);
    b. Name(s) and Affiliation(s) of author(s), including post code and E-mail;
    c. Abstract;
    d. List of suitable keywords;
    e. List of abbreviations used in the manuscript;
    f. Introduction;
    g. Materials and methods;
    h. Results;
    i. Discussion;
    j. Conclusions;
    k. Acknowledgements (if there are any);
    1. References;
    m. Tables;
    n. Figure captions;
    o. Figures;
    p. Short title which will be used as running head
  9. The publishers reserve the privilege of returning to the author for revision accepted manuscripts and illustrations, which are not in the proper form given in this guide.


All articles should start with an abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words or 10% of the total paper. The abstract should state briefly and specifically what the paper reports, summarize the conclusions, point out new information and indicate the relevance of the work. It is thus an independent entity.


  1. Tables should be as simple and as few as feasible for the presentation of the essential data.
  2. Authors should take notice of page size of A4. The tables should preferably be located along the page, without turning it horizontally.
  3. Large tables should be avoided. If many data are to be presented, an attempt should be made to divide these over two or more tables.
  4. Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title.
  5. Tables should be typewritten in separate files and in MS EXCEL program. They should never be included in the text.
  6. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory.
  7. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead.
  8. Explanations essential to the understanding of the table should be given at the bottom of the table marked in appropriate way.


  1. All illustrations should be given separately, not stuck on pages and not folded. Graphical materials should be preferred. Photographs should be appropriate for printing. Colour illustrations are accepted in exceptional cases after agreement with the editor.
    The graphs ought to be made in MS EXCEL program and in separate files.
  2. Illustrations should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. References should be made in the text to each figure.
  3. Each illustration should be identified on the reverse side (or, in the case of line-drawings, on the lower front side) by its number and by the name of the first author. An indication of the top of the illustration is required in cases where doubt can arise.
  4. Each illustration should be accompanied by a caption. Put the captions on a separate list, added to the manuscript. Explanations to be typewritten under the figure should be given in this list, too.


  1. All references to publications made in the text should be presented in a list with their fall bibliographical description.
  2. In the text refer to the author's name (without initial) and year of publication. Example: According to Viand et al. (1977), it cannot be assumed... This is an agreement with the results obtained by other authors (Stoyanov, 1982; Harden and Wood, 1989 and Bishop etal., 1993).
  3. If reference is made in the text to publications written by more than two authors the name of the first author should be used, followed by "et al.". This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list names of authors and co-authors, should be mentioned instead.
  4. References in the text should be arranged chronologically (see the example in item 2). The list of references should be arranged alphabetically on author's names, and chronologically per author. If an author's name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors, the following order should be used: Publications of the single author, arranged according to publication dates - publications of the same author with one co-author - publications of the author with more than one co-author. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1992a, l992b,etc.
  5. Names of authors and title of journals, published in non-latin alphabets should be transliterated in English.
  6. Use the following system of transliteration of Cyrilic, without trying to simulate the English pronunciation: A = A, Б=B, B = V, Г = G, Д = D, E = E, Ж = ZH, З = Z, И = I, Й = Y at the beginning of the words, I in other cases, K = K, Л = L, M = M, H = N, O = O, П = P, Р = R, С = S, T = T, У = U, Ф = F, X = KH, Ц = TSH, Ч = CH, Ш = SH, Щ = SHT, Ъ = U, ЬO = YO, Ю = YU, Я = YA, Э = E, Ы = Y.
  7. A notation such as "Bg" for Bulgarian, "Ru" for Russia, "Sr" for Serbian (in case of titles in Cyrillic), "Mo" for Mongolian, "Gr" for Greek, "Geor" for Georgian, "Ja" for Japanese, "Ch" for Chinese etc. should be added after the bibliographical entry in brackets, showing the original language, when the original alphabet is other than Latin.
  8. Use the following system for arranging your references:
    a) For periodicals:
    Ivanov, I. S., 1989. The effect of temperature on maize growth. Plant Science, 25:125-129 (Bg).
    Stoyanov, N. T, I. L.Torev and L. I. Marinova, 1993. Relationship between genotype of sire and dam, and level of insulin-like growth factor in cows post partum. Animal Science, 26: 124-132 (Bg).
    b) For symposia reports and abstracts:
    Petkov, I. M. and S. H. Shopov, 1979. Rumen ammonia levels and digestibility of rations with NaOH treated wheat straw. In: M. Ivanov (Editor), Processing Low Quality Roughages and Their Use in Ruminant Feeding. (Proceedings of Symposium, Pleven 16-19 June, 1977. Research Institute for Fodder Production, Pleven, pp. 126-129 (Bg).
    Blajan, L. and V. Kouba, 1991. The role, possible evaluation and future of animal health service in Eastern Europe. In: Y. Boyazoglu and Y. Renaud (Editors), Livestock Production Sector in Eastern Europe as Affected by Current Changes (Proceedings of theround-table organized by EAAP and FAO, Budapest, 14-17 April, 1991. EAAP Publication no. 57,1991), Pudoc Wageningen, pp. 172-178.
    c) For edited symposia, special issues, etc., published in a periodical:
    Korevaar, H., 1992. The nitrogen balance on intensive Dutch dairy farms: a review. In: A. A. Jongebreur et al. (Editors), Effects of Cattle and Pig Production Systems on the Environment: Livestock Production Science. 31: 17-27.
    d) For books:
    Ivanov., B., 1978. Mineralogy. Zemizdat, Sofia, 379 pp. (Bg).
    e) Books, containing sections written by different authors: Kunev, M., 1979. Pig Fattening. In: A. Alexiev (Editor), Farm Animal Feeding. Vol. III. Feeding of Different Animal Species, Zemizdat, Sofia, p. 233-243 (Bg).
  9. In referring to a personal communication the two words are followed by the year, e.g. (Brown, J. M., personal communication, 1982). In this case initials are given in the text

Formulae, numbers and other symbols

  1. Formulae should be typewriten, if possible. Subscripts and superscripts should beset off clearly. Take special care to show clearly the difference between zero (0) and the letter 0, and between one (1) and the letter I.
  2. Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equaton in which they are first used.
  3. For simple fractions, use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line, e.g. 11 /25.
  4. Equations should be numbered serially on the right-hand side and in parentheses if they are more than one and are explicitly referred to.
  5. Levels of statistical significance which can be used without further explanations are *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P<0.001.
  6. In the English articles, a decimal point should be used instead of a decimal comma.
  7. In chemical formulae, valence of ions should be given as, e.g. Ca2+ and CO32-, not as Ca++ or CO3.
  8. Numbers up to 10 should be written in the text by words. Numbers above 1000 are recommended to be given as 10 powered x.
  9. Greek letters should be explained in the margins with their names as follows: Αα - alpha, Ββ - beta, Γγ - gamma, Δδ - delta, Εε - epsilon, Ζζ - zeta, Ηη - eta, Θθ - theta, Ιι - iota, Κκ - kappa, Λλ - lambda, Μμ - mu, Νν - nu, Ξξ - xi, Οο - omicron, Ππ - pi, Ρρ - rho, Σσ - sigma, Ττ - tau, Υυ - ipsilon, Φφ - phi, Χχ - chi, Ψψ - psi, Ωω - omega.


  1. Authors and editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the relevant international codes. It should be given in italics.
  2. Although in general an author may quote from other published works, he should obtain permission from the holder of the copyright if he wishes to make substantial extracts or to reproduce tables, plates, or other illustrations.
  3. The staffs of Publisher perform copy-editing of manuscripts. The author is asked to check the galley proof for typographical errors and to answer queries from the copy editor. Publisher is entitled to recover from the author of any paper or report published in the journal any cost occasioned by alterations made by the author in the printer's proof other than correction of typesetting errors.
  4. Charge for publication is 10 EURO per type scripted page (1800 characters).
  5. PDF files of the articles will be supplied to the authors.
  6. The Editorial Secretariat informs the author about the receive of the paper, the results from the referees, its acceptance or rejection. Manuscripts are returned to the author for revision but not in case of rejection.
Guide for Authors
Bulgarian version