Investigating cadmium accumulation in wheat and barley cultivars from acidic soil of Central Turkey

Sengul Tongarlak1,2, Mehmet Zengin2 and Amrakh Mamedov2,3
1 General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, 4. Regional Directorate, Quality Control and Laboratory Branch Office Postcode: 42060 Selcuklu, Konya, Turkey
2 Selcuk University, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Postcode: 421030 Selcuklu, Konya, Turkey
3 Tottori University, Arid Land Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, 1390 Hamasaka 668-0001 Tottori, Japan

Abstract

Tongarlak, S., Zengin, M. & Mamedov, A. I. (2020). Investigating cadmium accumulation in wheat and barley cultivars from acidic soil of Central Turkey. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 26 (1), 157–166

Cadmium (Cd) excess in soil represents an important problem for cereal productivity and food-chain contamination. Limited information is available on the Cd concentration in the grain of cereals, grown in acidic soils of Turkey. The objective of the study was to investigate the response of the cereal cultivars (bread wheat, durum wheat and barley) to increasing rates of cadmium (Cd) application in acidic soil using the pot experiment. In the first stage (in 2006-2007), 10 cultivars of each crop were examined for grain Cd accumulation at two application rate of Cd salt (0 and 5 mg kg-1), and nine varieties were selected for their lowest, medium and highest level of grain Cd. In the second stage (in 2007-2008), Cd accumulation in the grain and stem of the selected nine crop varieties were studied at four-application rate of Cd salt (i.e., 0, 1, 3, 9 mg kg-1). Results showed that (i) crop, cultivar and Cd application rate and their interaction had significant (p < 0.05) effect on grain or stem Cd concentration, (ii) increasing rate of Cd applications linearly (proportionally) increased Cd concentration in the stem and grain of the crops, and (iii) durum wheat genotype accumulated 2-3 fold more Cd in the grain or stem than bread wheat or barley (i.e. durum wheat > bread wheat >barley). The differences between Cd concentrations of the crops, and their cultivars were mostly considerably at higher Cd application rates (3 and 9 mg kg-1). Grains of Ekiz (bread wheat), Meram-2002 (durum wheat) and Bulbul (barley) cultivars accumulated lowest amount of Cd. In all Cd treatments grains Cd concentration of the cultivars were higher (0.3-8.7 mg kg-1) than acceptable level. Cadmium proportional bioavailability to crops can be associated with the soil characteristics (e.g. moderate acid reaction, low clay and organic matter content) and Cd application rate.

Keywords: wheat; barley; cultivars; cadmium accumulation; acidic soil

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