ANGELINA IVANOVA1; MARIA ANGELOVA-ROMOVA2; ZHANA PETKOVA2; GINKA ANTOVA2; TANIA HUBENOVA1
1 Agricultural Academy, Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 248 V. Levski Str., 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2 University of Plovdiv “Paisii Hilendarski”, Department of Chemical Technology, 24 Tzar Asen Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Ivanova A. S., M. J. Angelova-Romova, Z. Y. Petkova, G. A. Antova and T. A. Hubenova, 2018. Chemical composition and fatty acid profile of lipids in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) meat as affected by cooking methods. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci.,24 (Suppl. 2): 73-80
The aim of the present study is to analyze the chemical composition of the meat and fatty acid profile of carp lipids (Cyprinus carpio L.) before and after heat treatment (baking and frying). The water content (weight method), proteins (Kjeldahl procedure), fat (arbitrage method), ash (weight method) and fatty acid composition (GC) are determined for carp from aquaculture – pond – and cage reared and for free-living carp from Zhrebchevo dam lake. It has been established that the level of water in the baked and fried carp decreases as a result of the heat treatment. Increases in protein, fat and ash content in heat treated meat samples compared to fresh carp meat are reported. The fatty acid profile of baked and fried carp showed a slight decrease in the level of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. An increase in the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids as a result of heat treatment is reported. The omega-3 fatty acid group is characterized by minor changes and relatively stable levels in baked and fried carp.
The values of the biologically important ω-6: ω-3 ratio in the fresh carp meat from all tested rearing groups ranged from 1.69 to 2.63%. For baked and fried meat samples, higher values are reported, respectively 4.83-6.28% for baked and 4.28-7.60% for fried ones. As a result of the thermal treatment, the values increase in both processing methods and exceed the recommended 5:1 ratio. The fried carp meat are characterized by higher ω-6:ω-3 ratios compared to baked, indicating that carp lipids in baked carp are more balanced and biologically more complete and have a lower risk factor for human health.