A. KOSOLAPOVA, V. YAMALTDINOVA, E. MITROFANOVA, D. FOMIN and I. TETERLEV
Perm Agricultural Scientifi c Research Institute, Department of Husbandry and Agrochemistry, 614532, Lobanovo,Perm Region, Russia
KOSOLAPOVA, A., V. YAMALTDINOVA, E. MITROFANOVA, D. FOMIN and I. TETERLEV, 2016. Yields of fi eld crops and sod-podzolic soil fertility of West Ural depending on fertilizer system. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 22: 381–385
Sod-podzolic soils are characterized by low level of natural fertility. The systematic fertilizers application is necessary condition of their fertility improvement and obtaining high yields of crops. Experimental data on infl uence study of fertilization systems on crop capacity, eight-course rotation productivity (bare fallow, winter rye, wheat with clover undersowing, clover fi rst year of use, clover second year of use, barley, potatoes, oat) and fertility of sod-podzolic clay loamy soil were presented in the article. Research conducted in 2002–2010 years based on the experimental fi eld of Perm Agricultural Research Institute in the long-term fi eld experiment, established in 1967 year. Studied following fertilization systems in experiment: organic (FYM 10 and 20 t ha–1 average annual rate, actually – 80 and 160 t ha–1); mineral, at rate equivalent to content of nutrients in FYM; organic-mineral with FYM 5, 10, 20 t ha–1 (actually – 40, 80 and 160 t ha–1) and mineral fertilizers at rate equivalent to FYM. Joint application of FYM and mineral fertilizers contributed to accumulation of humus from 2.35% in treatment with low rates of organic and mineral fertilizers to 2.70% with high rates. Application of high doses of organic and mineral fertilizers led to acidifi cation of soil – increase of hydrolytic acidity and decrease of total exchange bases. All fertilization systems led to higher content of mobile phosphorus and exchange potassium in the soil. Comparative evaluation of these fertilization systems revealed signifi cant increase of grain crops and potatoes yield. The largest gains of spring wheat grain (1.55 t ha–1), barley (0.55 t ha–1), oat (1.02 t ha–1) and potatoes (9.95 t ha–1) were obtained by application of organic-mineral fertilization system. The productivity of crop rotation increased when using of mineral fertilizer by 14–20%. The maximum effect was obtained from organic-mineral fertilization system (3859 FU ha–1 per year). Signifi cant heavy metal contamination of soil was not observed in these studies after long-term (about 40 years) use of FYM and mineral fertilizers.