Effects of Drought on Grain Productivity and Quality in Winter Bread Wheat

1 Agronomy Holding, BG - 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria
2 Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, BG - 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria


TSENOV, N., D. ATANASOVA, I. STOEVA and E. TSENOVA, 2015. Effects of drought on grain productivity and quality in winter bread wheat. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 21: 592–598

Background and Aims: The aim of the study is to determine the influence of strong and continuous drought on yield and grain quality of bread wheat in Dobrudzha region. The levels of yield and grain quality through their components and parameters generated in contrast to both drought and favorable years are directly compared.
Methods: In field conditions in Competitive yield trails grain yield and some traits, directly or indirectly associated with it are analyzed, and the most important parameters characterizing the quality of grain, too. Basis for comparison data from a favorable yield and quality of grain in 2006 was used. A detailed analysis of any change of trait of productivity and quality index of 65 advanced breeding lines was made. Specific change of individual indexes of quality of grain depends directly on the genetic nature of the studied genotypes.
Key results: Prolonged drought reduces most grain yield, resulting in reduction of all traits associated with it. The most conservative trait is 1000 kernel weight, which changes the least, while most reduce the number of productive tillers. In grain quality the drought changes inadequate individual trait performance. Specific weight increases, and the protein content and sedimentation value is not substantially altered. All other indexes are changed in fairly negatively to varying degrees.
Conclusions: The highest grain yield under drought in Dobrudzha has breeding lines that fail to form the highest number of grains per spike. Notwithstanding the terms of the year grain yield is determined most strongly by the trait number of kernels per spike. Under drought the most negatively affected performance have the strength of the dough and the quality of the grain-dough stability, including valorimetric value and loaf volume. When changing the quality of grain as lower the genetic quality talents of a variety, so the values of its parameters are changed slightly. This explains the wide variation in quality of wheat due to strong differences in terms of year conditions.

Key words: grain yield, components of yield, grain quality, drought, breeding lines
Abbreviations: GY - grain yield; WGE - weight of grain per ear; NGS – number of grains per spike; TGW - a 1000 grain weight; NPT - number of productive tillers, DE - date ear emergence, HOS - height of the stem; WGS - Weight of Grains per Spike; STW - specific test weight; GV - grain vitreous, GH - grain hardiness; SVF - sedimentation value of flour; WGC - wet gluten content; DT - dough tolerance (stability); DS - dough softening ; Val - valorimetric value; LV - loaf volume; H/D - Ratio of the bread H/D

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