G. KOSTADINOVA1, G. PETKOV1, S. DENEV2, Ch. MITEVA1, R. STEFANOVA1 and T. PENEV1
1 Trakia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, BG - 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2 Trakia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physics, Section Microbiology, BG – 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
KOSTADINOVA, G., G. PETKOV, S. DENEV, Ch. MITEVA, R. STEFANOVA and T. PENEV, 2014. Microbial pollution of manure, litter, air and soil in a poultry farm. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 20: 56-65
Hygienic evaluation of the microbial pollution of the fresh manure, litter, air and soil based on the number of cultivable microorganisms and the number of coliform bacteria at six points in a broiler farm (indoor points: Point 1 – building A and Point 2 – building B - fresh manure, litter and air; outdoor points: Point 3 - at 2.0 m, Point 4 - at 20.0 m, Point 5 - at 50.0 m and Point 6, control - at 500 m distances from the buildings – air and soil) with capacity of 43000 broiler chickens was performed in the present study. The number of cultivable microorganisms and number of coliform bacteria in all investigated parameters varied widely, with clear differences among the various elements of the chain “fresh manure–litter–soil at 2.0 m, at 20.0 m, at 50.0 m and at 500.0 m from poultry buildings” and in the indoor and outdoor air at the same distances as at the soil. In fresh manure number of cultivable microorganisms and number of coliform bacteria was much higher than litter and especially than indoor air, and later significantly decreased in outdoor air and soil at 2.0 m from poultry buildings, and to a lower extent in air and soil at 20.0 m, at 50 m and at 500.0 m from broiler buildings. The fresh broiler manure and litter are main sources of inside and outside air and soil pollution surround broiler buildings in a poultry farm with saprophytic microorganisms including coliform bacteria, subject to sanitary control. Increasing the distance from poultry buildings, led to reducing the number of cultivable microorganisms and number of coliform bacteria in the soil and in the air. When removed from the broiler houses manure and litter are not stored on the farm territory and no surface drainage process water from the facilities, the air from the production buildings is a major source of environmental contamination with microorganisms.