KUCUKYUMUK, C. and H. YILDIZ, 2013. The impacts of transition from flood irrigation to drip irrigation method on plant water consumption and yield in apple growing. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 19: 1018-1026
This study elucidates the effects of transition from flood irrigation to drip irrigation method on apple trees regarding the water consumption and yield of the plant in 2008 and 2009. Starkrimson Delicious variety grafted onto seedling rootstock was used in the study. The studied apple trees had been irrigated by flood irrigation for many years. During the study, flood irrigation was continued at one part of the orchard, and drip irrigation was applied with different irrigation programs at the remaining parts of the orchard. Irrigation interval was held 20 days for flood irrigation (conventional) method. For drip irrigation, two different irrigation intervals (I1 = 4 days, I2 = 7 days) and four different pan coefficients (Kcp1 = 0.50, K cp2 =0.75, Kcp3 = 1.0, Kcp4 = 1.25) were used in the study. The highest amounts of irrigation water and plant water consumptions were determined for flood irrigation treatment for both years. Expanding the irrigation interval and increasing the pan coefficient led to an increase in plant water consumption during drip irrigation treatments. The highest amount of plant water consumption was determined in I2Kcp4 treatment. Statistically, while the yield with flood irrigation treatment was higher than Kcp1 and Kcp2 treatment, the yield data of Kcp3 and Kcp4 treatments were similar in both years. Irrigation levels (Kcp) influenced the yield (p < 0.01); however, irrigation intervals and irrigation intervals x irrigation level interaction did not have any impact on the yield. Kcp3 and Kcp4 (1.25) represented a more marketable fruit size (extra and class 1) than flood irrigation.
As a result, during the application of drip irrigation for the apple trees, which were previously irrigated, by flood irrigation for many years, the irrigation interval and pan coefficient (Kcp) under similar climatic and soil conditions were considered as 4 days and 1.0, respectively.1