A. IVANOVA, N. TSENOV and I. STOEVA
Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, BG – 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria
IVANOVA, A., N. TSENOV and I. STOEVA, 2013. Grain quality of common wheat according to variety and growing conditions in the region of Dobrudzha. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 19: 523-529
Nowadays the quality requirements in the production of grain received by all downstream grain-flour-bread are great mainly because of the strong impact of the conditions on its formation during the different seasons. For this reason, it is necessary to realize the new varieties the maximum of its genetic traits, even under different stress and climatic anomalies. The study is made of the main characteristics of the new quality indices common wheat varieties, developed of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo (DAI) which genetic traits belong to different qualitative groups. The study includes two contrasting meteorological terms in the year (2007 and 2008), and varieties grown in four previous crops and three levels of fertilization. The first year of the study (2007) is characterized by a severe and long-lasting drought, and the next (2008) – with favourable conditions during the vegetation of wheat. The effect of agronomy factors on the formation of grain quality in contrasting years was investigated. Analyzed is the change in quality indices of genotypes with contrasting environmental conditions. Established is main role in the formation of the variety of specific weight (TestW), sedimentation (SDS), the resistance of dough (DRes) and valorimetric value (VAL) under favourable conditions during the year. In years with stress (drought), mineral fertilization is essential for the wet gluten content (WGC) and volume of bread (LVol). Under the same conditions, differences between genotypes are aligned due to a stronger variation in quality indices. In years with favourable conditions differences between the studied varieties deepen, they are most pronounced for the specific weight (TestW), sedimentation (SDS) and bread loaf (LVol). Low quality and high quality varieties retain the level of quality, regardless of environmental conditions. The varieties with genetic potential for moderate quality reacted in different ways through their respective indices to the changeable growing conditions.