Selection Efficiency of Morphological and Physiological Parameters of T. aestivum L. in Dry Climatic Conditions

D. BOYADJIEVA and B. ANDONOV

Institute of Plant Genetic Resources „K. Malkov”, BG - 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria

Abstract

BOYADJIEVA, D. and B. ANDONOV, 2010. Selection efficiency of morphological and physiological parameters of T. aestivum L. in dry climatic conditions. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 16: 539-546

The morphological and physiological parameters of T. aestivum L. and their integration with yield were studied in order to identify more effective criteria for the genetic improvement of new cultivars in dry climatic conditions. The tested varieties were developed at the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources in Sadovo in the period 1948-2005. Cultivar N 301, widespread in 1948, was used as control. A field trial was carried out in 3 replications in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Plant and leaf parameters were analyzed as well as yield and duration of the vegetation period. Variability and genetic gain of the studied indexes were identified. A computer software package was used for variation, correlation and regression analysis.
It has been established that the preservation of canopy and leaf mass for up to 10 days after ear growth is most important for yield increase in the dry conditions of Central South Bulgaria. At the same time, the correlation coefficient of yield and foliage area of one plant during heading was high and statistically proven. The same was true about canopy per unit of land, the area of one leaf and the area of the flag leaf.
The semi-planophyl flag leaf was optimal for the specific conditions of the trial and its width was in positive correlation with the yield.
Yield increase was parallel to the shortening of the vegetation period.

Key words: bread wheat, morphological and physiological indexes, flag leaf, source, sink

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