Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, BG-1407 Sofia, Bulgaria
PETROVA, I., 2005. Durum wheat production, usage and trade in the world. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 11: 667-676
Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) is a spring or winter wheat mainly grown for human consumption. Durum wheat is cultivated on about 17 Mha, accounting for 8% of total wheat area. World durum production averaging about 33 Mt annually and make 5.0% of total wheat production. The great bulk of durum area and production is concentrated in Mediterranean region (including North Africa, southern Europe and West Asia) and North America. The EU is the largest durum producer, followed by Canada, U.S. and WANA countries. Approximately 75% of the world durum production is used for pasta, while 25% is used for other products as couscous, burghul and many types of bread, whose feature vary according to local habits. In some regions of the world, poor quality durum is used for feed. Durum consumption is mainly concentrated in countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Together WANA countries account for more than one third of durum wheat consumption and per capira annual consumption hears is the highest in the world. The total quantity of durum traded in the world market is about 6,5 Mt, which is 20% of annual durum production. Canada is the leader in durum export, followed by the U.S and the EU, which together supplies above 70% of the durum traded in the world market. The North Africa countries of Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco constitute the largest durum import market in the world.