Possibilities for Reducing the Contents of Heavy Metals in the Fibre of Cotton, Grown in Industrially Polluted Regions

B. YANKOV and V. DELIBALTOVA
Agricultural University, Agricultural Faculty,BG-4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Abstract

YANKOV, B. and V. DELIBALTOVA, 2005. Possibilities for reducing the contents of heavy metals in the fibre of cotton, grown in industrially polluted regions. Bulg. J.Agric.Sci., 11: 583-588

The field tests were held in regions, which were at a distance of 0.5 and 15 km from the main source of pollution - the Plant for Production of Non-Ferrous Metals - Plovdiv. Object of research were cultivars Beli izvor, Ogosta, Chirpan 603, Chirpan 539 and Avangard. An analysis of the fibre was made after gathering the cotton, in order to determine the level of pollution with copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). We ascertained the possibilities for removing a part of the absorbed heavy metals following heat treatment with water for two hours.
The purpose of the present research was to study the level of pollution and the possibilities for removing a part of the absorbed Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the fibre of several cotton cultivars. The results showed that, the heat treatment with water of the fibre, obtained from cotton, grown in the region near the Factory for non-ferrous metals - Plovdiv, decreased the contents of the heavy metals almost twice, and their quantity was getting closer to that in the region without pollution. Cotton was a suitable crop for growing in the region of the Plant for Production of Non-Ferrous Metals - Plovdiv due to the fact that its fibre, before being used in the textile industry, was compulsory subjected to a number of different technological treatments - including heat treatment with water. They contributed to reducing the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the fibre more than twice.

Key words: heavy metals, pollution, cotton, cultivars