Developing Genetic Variability by Somacloning in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and it's Application for Crop Improvement

J. ENCHEVA, F. TSVETKOVA, P. IVANOV, M. TODOROVA and P. SHINDROVA
Dobroudja Agricultural Institute, BG-9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

Abstract

ENCHEVA, J., F. TSVETKOVA, P. IVANOV, M. TODOROVA and P. SHINDROVA, 2004. Developing genetic variability in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and it's application for crop improvement. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 10: 25-32

Immature zygotic embryos from the Spanish fertility restorer line Z-8-A were used as donor material for induction of direct organogenesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The range of spontaneous somaclonal variation among the progenies of regenerants was studied. The genetic modifications observed in the regenerants included twelve agronomic traits. Somaclonal lines R 1305, R 1279 and R 1303 showed a modified architecture, higher oil content in seed and higher 1000 seed weight in comparison to the standard Z-8-A, and very good combining ability. Hybrid 117, 126, 128 produced with the participation of somaclonal lines R 1279, R 1303 and R 1305 demonstrated high production capacity, shorter vegetation period and reduced height than the commercial standards Albena and Super Start. The combination of these favourable changes is desirable in breeding work on sunflower. Somaclonal variation through direct organogenesis has facilitated the creation of genetically heritable variation in sunflower, which can be used with success for hybrid seed production of highly productive and adaptable hybrids.

Key words: Helianthus annuus L., direct organogenesis, somaclonal variation, new breeding material, combining ability