Bread Making Quality of Winter Hexaploid Triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittmack) in Bulgaria

St. M. TSVETKOV and I. STOEVA
Dobroudja Agricultural Institute, BG-9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

Abstract

TSVETKOV, St. M. and I. STOEVA, 2003. Bread making quality of winter hexaploid triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittmack) in Bulgaria. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 9: 203–208

Among the south-eastern European countries, Bulgaria is one of those where highest amounts of bread are consumed. About 45 % of proteins in the diet of Bulgarians come from wheat bread. This kind of bread, however, is with insufficiency of one of the most important aminoacids – lysine. Bread with increased protein and lysine content can be produced from the new cereal crop triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittmack). The future of this bread depends to a maximum degree on the availability of suitable production cultivars with high productivity and increased protein and lysine content in grain.
In 1984 and 1987, the State Varietal Commission certified as original the new cultivars Vihren and Persenk (2n=6x=42) which are with very successfully combine high productivity (maximum yields registered in the institute and state varietal trials from 9060 to 9553 kg/ha) and high protein (cv. Persenk – 16.1 %) and lysine as % of protein (cv. Vihren -510 mg) content.
In the bread namely "Triticale", produced from the flour of cvs. Vihren and Persenk, two new especially valuable qualities are obtained: longer preservation of freshness (2 to 3 days) and specific flavour and sweetly taste.
The triticale cvs. Vihren and Persenk possess high resistance to rusts, powdery mildew and bunts, and have low requirements for soil fertility, which excludes the use of chemical preparations for control of diseases and demands minimal nitrogen fertilization. Therefore the bread from these cultivars has the lowest content of harmful chemical substances. This meets the modern requirements for friendly treatment of the environment and human healthcare. All this makes the wholemeal bread "Triticale" the bread of the present day and the future.

Key words: triticale (2n=6x=42), cultivar, productivity, protein lysine, bread making quality