Detection of Squash Mosaic Virus, Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus and Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Cucurbit Seeds

B. DIKOVA and D. HRISTOVA
Plant Protection Institute, BG-2230 Kostinbrod, Bulgaria

Abstract

DIKOVA, B. and D. HRISTOVA, 2002. Detection of squash mosaic virus, zucchini yellow mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus in cucurbit seeds. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 8: 201–210

ACP-ELISA was optimized for the detection of economically important seed transmitted viruses in cucurbits, such as squash mosaic virus – SqMV, zucchini yellow mosaic virus – ZYMV and cucumber mosaic virus – CMV. Viruses were found in seed germs, in seedlings in 2–4-leaf stage, in leaves of plants with 12–14 leaves, in flower buds, flower carpophores and anthers. The results of the screening of seeds on the market showed a high level of virus infection. Biserka variety had the highest number of seeds infected with all three viruses, 91% of seeds carried SqMV and ZYMV and 95% – CMV. The percentage of infected seeds was high in Izobilna hybrid and cv. Gornooryahovska 1 as well. Cv. Biserka seeds had the highest virus concentration. Extinction values of some seeds reached 0.6–0.8 OD, followed by Gornooryahovska 1 seeds with 0.4–0.5 OD and Izobilna hybrid with 0.2–0.4 optical density.
The tendency towards high infection rate of Gornooryahovska 1 cucurbit seeds with SqMV, ZYMV and CMV is maintained in seedlings and grown plants as well.
The use of cucurbit seed germs is recommended for quick detection of SqMV, ZYMV and CMV. Testing should be done by means of ACP-ELISA and only SqMV, ZYMV and CMV-free lots are to be used for sowing.

Key words: seed transmitted viruses, detection, squash mosaic virus – SqMV, zucchini yellow mosaic virus – ZYMV, cucumber mosaic virus – CMV